The normal cornea    The air–tear interface is the most powerful refracting interface of the eye. The cornea is aspheric, with the central cornea steeper than the periphery. The refractive power of the optical zone (central 4 mm) is ≈43 D. The average adult transverse corneal diameter is 11–12 mm, and 9–11 mm vertically. Corneal clarity depends upon…… Continue reading Cornea


Leucocoria is a white pupil. It is a serious sign that requires urgent referral and assessment. The more common causes include: ( very important in the exam) ■ Infantile cataract. ■ Retinoblastoma. 1- Retinoblastoma The most common malignant intraocular tumour in children. Cumulative incidence at 5 years old is 9.3/million births in Jordan. Most (82%) cases…… Continue reading Leukocoria


Preoperative Assessment Cataract is the most common cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Most cataracts are age-related. An estimated  30% of those aged over 65 have visually significant (<6/12) cataract and 70% of those over 85 years. Whilst age is the predominant risk factor for cataract formation, the process is multifactorial and remains to be fully elucidated. To…… Continue reading CATARACT SURGERY

Dry eyes

Dry eye disease, etiology, differential diagnosis and treatment.