The normal cornea    The air–tear interface is the most powerful refracting interface of the eye. The cornea is aspheric, with the central cornea steeper than the periphery. The refractive power of the optical zone (central 4 mm) is ≈43 D. The average adult transverse corneal diameter is 11–12 mm, and 9–11 mm vertically. Corneal clarity depends upon…… Continue reading Cornea


Leucocoria is a white pupil. It is a serious sign that requires urgent referral and assessment. The more common causes include: ( very important in the exam) ■ Infantile cataract. ■ Retinoblastoma. 1- Retinoblastoma The most common malignant intraocular tumour in children. Cumulative incidence at 5 years old is 9.3/million births in Jordan. Most (82%) cases…… Continue reading Leukocoria

Retina vascular disease 3

a short course on central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion

Categorized as retina


Preoperative Assessment Cataract is the most common cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Most cataracts are age-related. An estimated  30% of those aged over 65 have visually significant (<6/12) cataract and 70% of those over 85 years. Whilst age is the predominant risk factor for cataract formation, the process is multifactorial and remains to be fully elucidated. To…… Continue reading CATARACT SURGERY


Conjunctival Anatomy ■ The conjunctival epithelium includes goblet cells that produce the mucous layer of the tear film. ■ The conjunctival stroma comprises a superfi cial adenoid layer and a deep fi brous layer. The former contains lymphoid tissue that results in follicle formation with appropriate stimuli (it is undeveloped in infants who cannot develop a follicular…… Continue reading EXTERNAL EYE DISEASE (Conjunctiva)

contact lenses

Contact lenses often provide better visual acuity and peripheral vision than do eyeglasses and can be prescribed to correct the following: Myopia Hyperopia Astigmatism Anisometropia Aniseikonia (a difference in image size) Aphakia (absence of the lens) after cataract removal Keratoconus (a cone-shaped cornea) Either soft or rigid lenses are used to correct myopia and hyperopia. Toric…… Continue reading contact lenses

comprehensive eye examination

The eye can be examined with routine equipment, including a standard ophthalmoscope; thorough examination requires special equipment and evaluation by an ophthalmologist. History History includes location, speed of onset, and duration of current symptoms and history of previous ocular symptoms. The presence and nature of pain, discharge, or redness; and changes in visual acuity. Worrisome…… Continue reading comprehensive eye examination